Anatomy and Physiology (Part II)

The Anatomy and Physiology course (Part II) gives you an in-depth understanding of basic Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of all Organ Systems, like Urinary System, Reproductive System, Nervous System, Immune System, Sense Organs. It is of paramount importance for anybody dealing with patients to know how the body works, to understand physical symptoms and be able to recognize when to refer to a specialist.

Length:

3-6 months

Credits:

15 (300 hours online)

Tuition:

Anatomy and Physiology (Part II)
USD $1275.00
(6 installments – $298 per month)

Material:

9 detailed handouts
31+ hours of filmed lectures
Practice exams & exercises

This course will give in-depth knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of healthy systems. This knowledge is vital for understanding the causes, mechanisms, clinical features and diagnosis of the diseases. The Anatomy and Physiology (Part I) will begin with an exploration of the basic terminology needed to understand the human body as you learn to name and locate key anatomical landmarks on the body surface and become familiar with the locations, structures and functions of the major bones, muscles, joints, nerves and organs. You will study cells, tissues and the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, endocrine systems and skin, always considering how these systems integrate to maintain balance in the healthy organism.
For each system you will study structure, functions and related concepts in biochemistry, then in the last part of the lesson you will look at the causes, signs and symptoms of key diseases in order to provide you with an integrated understanding of anatomy, physiology and pathology.

Anatomy and Physiology (Part II) Syllabus

Central nervous system (CNS)

  • Brain
  • Spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

  • Peripheral nerves (all nerves not in the CNS)

Functions

  • Sensory
  • Integrative
  •  Motor

Autonomic nervous system

  • Sympathetic
  • Parasympathetic

Enteric nervous system

Histology

  • Neurones
  • Nerves
  • Schwann Cells & Myelination

Nerve impulses

  • Ion channels
  • Resting potential
  • Action potential
  • Conduction

Synapses

  • Chemical transmission
  • Neurotransmitters

Central nervous system

Protection

  • Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB)
  • Blood supply to the brain

Brain

  • Blood supply to the brain
  • Cerebrum
  • Diepcephalon
  • Brain stem
  • Cerebellum

Spinal Cord

  • Grey matter
  • White matter

Peripheral nervous system

  • Cranial nerves
  • Spinal cord: physiology
  • Reflex arcs

Nervous system – pathologies

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Migraine
  • Headaches
  • Brain tumours
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Motor neuron disease

Phenylketonuria

  • Spina bifida
  • Meningitis
  • Sciatica
  • Neuritis
  • Bell’s Palsy

Pathologies: CSF & meningeal

  • Hydrocephalus
  • Head injuries
  • Concussion
  • Contusion
  • Fractures

Lines of defence

  • External barriers
  • Internal barriers
  • Internal barrier – immune system.

External defences – 1st line of defence

  • Skin
  • Mucous membranes
  • Excretions
  • Pathogens

Internal defences – 2nd line of defence

  • Non-specific – proteins
  • Non-specific – antimicrobial cells
  • Non-specific – inflammation
  • Non-specific – fever
  • Body defence: Antigens

Internal defences – 3rd line of defence: Immune system

  • Lymphocytes: B & T cells
  • Antibody mediated immunity (humoral immunity)
  • Lymphocytes: T cells
  • Lymphocytes: self-tolerance & self-recognition
  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Cell mediated immunity
  • Cells of the immune system
  • Agranulocytes
  • Monocytes & macrophages
  • Monocytes
  • Macrophages
  • Eosinophils / Acidophils
  • Neutrophils
  • Granulocytes
  • Basophils / mast cells
  • Antibody mediated immunity (humoral immunity)
  • Immunological memory

Immune system – pathologies

  • Auto-immune conditions
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS)
  • Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
  • Grave’s disease (Thyrotoxicosis)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLS)
  • Allergy
  • Anaphylactic shock

Pathologies – sexual

  • Gonorrhoea
  • Syphilis
  • Genital warts
  • Herpes – genital
  • Herpes – cold sores
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Chlamydia

Infectious agents
VirusesBacteria

  • Classification
  • Survival & growth
  • Types

Human microflora

Fungi

  • Infections (mycosis)
  • Survival & growth

Protozoa

Helminths

Pathologies

Infection – transmission

Microbes & the human body

Pathologies

  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Chicken pox
  • Shingles
  • Impetigo
  • Whooping cough
  • Tuberculosis
  • Cellulitis & Erysipelas
  • Diphtheria
  • Scarlet fever

Cell cycle

  • Benign tumours
  • Malignant tumours
  • Spread
  • Types of cancer

Perceived causes

  • Mutation
  • Carcinogen
  • Carcinogenesis

Signs & symptoms

Causes

  • Risk factors
  • Local effects
  • Systemic effects
  • Warning signs

Diagnostic tests

  • Blood tests
  • Tumour markers
  • Imaging
  • Biopsies

Treatment

  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Other drugs used

Pathologies

  • Lung cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Oesophageal cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Colo-rectal cancer
  • Polyps
  • Ppostate cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Testicular cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Lipoma
  • Leumaemia

Sight and the eye

  • Structure
  • Physiology of sight

Hearing and the ear

  • Structure
  • Physiology of hearing
  • Sound sensation

Balance and the ear

  • Physiology of balance
  • Volume & health
  • White noise

Sense of smell

  • Physiology of smell

Sense of taste

  • Physiology of taste

Pathologies of the ear

  • Otitis externa (‘swimmer’s ear’)
  • Otitis media
  • Secretory otitis media
  • Chronic otitis media
  • Labyrinthitis (otitis interna)
  • Meniere’s disease
  • Tinnitus
  • Hearing impairment

Pathologies of the eye

  • Blepharitis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Stye
  • Uveitis
  • Retinal detachment
  • Strabismus (squint)
  • Muscae volitantes (‘floaters’)
  • Cataract
  • Glaucoma

Drug Effects
Classification and Naming
Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics
Administration
Chrono-Pharmacology
Absorption
Distribution and Transport in the Body
Receptors
Elimination (Detoxification)
Mode of Action

Dosages
Dosage Regimes
Adverse/Toxic Effects of drugs
Adverse Effects of drugs
Specific Adverse Effects
Drug Interactions
Drugs and Alcohol
Drug/Herb Interactions
Antimicrobial drugs

Musculoskeletal Drugs
Rheumatic Disease
Gout
Adverse Effects – Reye’s Syndrome
Malignant Disease and Immune Suppression
Cardiovascular Drugs
Adverse Effects – Statins
CNS Drugs

Gastrointestinal Drugs
Respiratory System Drugs
Endocrine Drugs
Diabetes Drugs
Thyroid Drugs
Hormones
Skin
Anaesthesia
Allopathic vs. natural therapies

Stool analysis

  • Types of Test
  • M2-PK Tumour Marker

Urine analysis

  • The Use of Test Sticks

Kidney Function Tests

  • Kidney Function
  • Uric Acid

Blood Tests

  • Common Blood Parameters
  • Food Intolerance
  • Common Food Intolerance Symptoms
  • Elimination Challenge Diets
  • FACTest
  • York IgG Test – Food Scan
  • Full Blood Count
  • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  • Sex Hormones
  • DHEA-S
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Red Blood Cells
  • RDW
  • Biochemical Parameters
  • Blood Fats
  • Triglycerides
  • Blood Glucose

Liver Enzymes

  • Bilirubin
  • Jaundice
  • Pancreatic Enzymes

Hair Mineral Analysis

  • Mineral ratios
  • Calcium/Phosphorus Ratio
  • Sodium/Potassium Ratio
  • Sodium/Magnesium Ratio
  • Zinc/Copper Ratio
  • Iron/Copper Ratio

Saliva Analysis
Candida

Adrenal Stress Index Test

  • Adrenals
  • ASI sample report –
    Exhaustion phase
  • Female hormone panel

Naturopathic Diagnostic Techniques

  • Facial signs
  • Iridology
  • Tongue diagnosis
  • Nail diagnosis
  • Bio-electric testing –
    e.g. Vega
  • Reflex zones

Certification

After you have completed Anatomy and Physiology Course (Part II), you will be eligible to take a final course exam to qualify for an ASNH Certificate of Anatomy and Physiology Course.